Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a specific condition where nerves or blood vessels between the collar bone and first rib are compressed causing pain in the shoulder and neck and/or numbness down the arm.


Types of TOS

The main types of TOS include:
Neurogenic (Neurological) - compression of the brachial plexus that come out from nerves in the neck that go down the arm to control muscle movements and sensations.
Vascular - either the veins or the arteries are compressed by the collar bone
Non-Specific - where there is pain at the thoracic outlet with increased activity but there is nothing specific that can be pin pointed.


frozen shoulder


What is Frozen Shoulder?

Frozen Shoulder (adhesive capsulitis) is a condition which starts as pain into the shoulder and progresses gradually into restriction of almost all ranges of movement. For some, the pain worsens at night which can disrupt sleep. It most commonly affects women 40-60 years of age but men can also be affected. The causes of frozen shoulder are unknown but it is usually more prevalent in people who have had prior shoulder related injuries or trauma which have caused the affected shoulder to be immobilised for a period of time.


What is Lymphoedema

Lymphoedema is caused by an overload of the lymphatic system resulting  in a swelling of one or more regions of the body. It is not curable but can be managed.

There are two main categories of Lymphoedema

a) Primary Lymphoedema: caused by a malformation of lymphatic vessels and/or nodes and might not appear till later on in life. 

b) Secondary Lymphoedema:  is caused by damage to the lymphatic system, mostly the axillary and inguinal lymph nodes.

Most frequently secondary lymphoedema occurs after surgery and radiation treatment for cancer. An oedema may develop directly after treatment or over time as a result of a chronic overload of the lymphatic system.

There can be various complications with Lymphoedema of which Cellulitis is the most common one.